Working of Solar cell

Solar cell, semiconductor semiconductor, solid material whose electrical conductivity at room temperature is between that of a conductor and that of an insulator (


When sunlight strikes a solar cell, an electron is freed by the photoelectric effect. The two dissimilar semiconductors possess a natural difference in electric potential (voltage), which causes the electrons to flow through the external circuit, supplying power to the load. The flow of electricity results from the characteristics of the semiconductors and is powered entirely by light striking the cell.
devised to convert light to electric current. It is a specially constructed diode diode (dī`ōd), two-terminal electronic device that permits current flow predominantly in only one direction.
,usually made of silicon crystal. When light strikes the exposed active surface, it knocks electrons loose from their sites in the crystal. Some of the electrons have sufficient energy to cross the diode junction and, having done so, cannot return to positions on the other side of the junction without passing through an external circuit. Since the current obtained from these devices is small and the voltage is low, they must be connected in large series-parallel arrays (solar panels) if useful amounts of energy are to be converted. Practical devices of this kind are about 10% to 15% efficient and for many years were most commonly used to provide electric power for spacecraft. For large-scale power conversion solar cells offer a number of practical problems; one of the most serious of these is the wide variation of output voltage and current accompanying changes in the amount of incident light; this can be compensated for on smaller scales by storing energy produced during peak periods in batteries. Reductions in the cost of producing solar panels have made them a viable alternative to electrical generators for homes and villages in remote areas.

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How To Relieve Your Stress and Anxiety

mediation make you relaxedmediation make you relaxedThere’s a lot of debate and theories about what it is stress and what it does to us. We all have an idea of what’s stress because we all experience it from time to time (some persons more often than they would like to experience it).

Hans Selye one of the fathers of stress research teached us that stress is not necessarily something bad, that it’s part of the natural experience of living and that even the animals have stress. And Selye stated that the biochemical effects of stress would be experienced whether the situation that originated was a positive or a negative one.

But although all of us suffer stress, there’s not an unique response to stressful events, because stress is greatly influenced by what we think about the stressing situation.

The first thing that we need to learn about stress is that’s a natural response of our body and that stress does not need to be all bad. Sometimes we need a bit of stress in our daily lives as a challenge that can help us reach higher heights.

So the big secret is that we do not need to lean how not to have stress, but we need to learn how to channel that energy into something beneficial and positive.


Walter Cannon studies in 1932 is the father of the “fight or flight” response that says that when an living being perceives something as as threat, it reacts instantly by releasing hormones that help him survive either fighting either running away from the threat.

What do that hormones do in our bodies?

They increase the heart rate and blood pressure, delivering more oxygen and blood sugar to major muscles, which allow us for greater speed and strength. We can also trigger the same response when we face something unexpected or frustrating, although we might not notice the changes in our bodies.

But all these changes in our bodies that spring into survival mode have also a negative consequence, because we become excitable, anxious, jumpy and irritable, and this may difficult us to carry out controlled skills, and turn us more accident-prone and less able to make good decisions. And on the long term it can also affect our health.

So we need to be able to control our fight or flight response, and for that we need to identify stress in our life.

Many people think that because they are not aware of how much stress they are carrying it can’t be so serious to have it. But regardless of how much harm can do you, if you learn to identify it, you can learn how to deal more effectively with stress.

secrets to successful goal setting

<b>4 Secrets to Successful Goal Setting That Achieve Anything You Want in Life</b>

How You Set your goal

Well, everyone set goals. Some set big goals, some set small goals, but they all are setting goals. Some are highly motivated toward their goals, some are not. However, of all 100 people who set their goals, only about 5 of them really achieve the results that they want. Why is this so? It is because many people thought that all they need to do is just to write down their goals, and everything will come automatically.

As you know, goal setting is just a process that helps you stay focused in your direction. Therefore, you must learn the right way of goal setting. Goal setting is not just about writing down your goals on a paper. If you do just this, you are just waiting for success to fall from the sky. So you must learn the 4 secrets to successful goal setting.

1. The first secret is that your goals must have deadline. Well, you may say that this is no secret, you knew about this and all of your goals have deadline. Trust me; more than 50 percent of people who set their goals did not set the deadline for their goals. A goal without a deadline is not a goal; it is a wish, a dream. This is because you don’t even know when you are going to achieve it. If you set your goal to be a multi-millionaire, it can be 1 year from now, 3 years from now, maybe even 20 years from now. Which one is going to be? So set your goals with specific deadline.

2. The second secret is this; your goal must be a stretch goal. So what is a stretch goal? A stretch goal is a goal that you need to stretch yourself in order to achieve it. You cannot achieve a stretch goal by merely working harder a little bit; you need to change your strategies in order to get it. For example, if your current salary is $2,000 a month, and your goal is $2,400, this is not a stretch goal. This is what I called an incremental goal. It is easy to achieve an incremental goal, all you do is just to work harder, spend more time and you will achieve it eventually.

However, a stretch goal is different. Take back the example above; for instance, a stretch goal can be earning $5,000 or even $10,000 a month. This is a goal that you cannot achieve with ordinary strategies. You need to change your strategies and do things differently, and this is where you need to think creatively.

3. Third secret, your goals must be exciting. Think about it, between earning $2,400 a month and earning $10,000 a month, which one of these goals are going to jump you up from your bed early in the morning? Of course, earning $10,000 a month is a more exciting goal and will wake you up immediately from your bed when you think about it. Many people did not know about this, and they set boring goals that lead to boring results. Thus, many of them fail to achieve what they want in their life.

4. The last secret, you goals must be as specific as possible and must be achievable. I bet you know about setting a specific goal right? While for achievable goal, it means that your goal must be something that can be put into works. Let me give you an example, ‘to conquer the Australian market’, is this achievable goal? Not at all, how in the world are you going to ‘conquer’ the market?

The goal should be set this way, ‘to sponsor 3 Australian per day’ or ‘to sell products to 3 Australian per day’; these are the right and achievable goals. By sponsoring 3 Australian or by selling products to 3 Australian per day, you will eventually ‘conquer’ the Australian market. This is how it works. Your goals must be specific and achievable.

So there you have them. The 4 secrets to successful goal setting that you must adopt in order to achieve anything you want in your life. Make sure that you follow all these 4 criteria in your goals. If your goals do not follow these criteria, make sure that you review them back.

Last advice from me, once you have set your goals; take at least 3 actions toward your goals immediately. This way, you will develop the momentum that necessary to keep you going. So take the first step now.

Is 2009 Going to be Your Year?

`<b>Success or failure</b> is caused more by mental attitude than by mental capacity’ according to <b>Sir Walter Scott</b>. Climbing back up only takes one precarious step, the next is easier and each step becomes less difficult until, before you know it, you are spiralling towards a peak; way beyond peaks you have ever dreamed of or have ever reached before. It has been said that the rung of a ladder was never meant to rest upon, but only to hold one’s foot long enough to enable you to put the other somewhat higher.

Have you noticed that once you are on a winning streak, everything goes your way? You develop the habit of reaching out and grasping, with both hands, every opportunity that presents itself. You make every post a winner and when there are no opportunities you make your own.

*Sir Francis Bacon said, `A wise man will make more opportunities than he finds’. At the same time your fitness improves, you excel at your hobbies, your circle of friends increases and naturally your self-esteem improves so much that members of the opposite sex are seeking you out.

*Your personal life can be described as exciting and fulfilling. After all, personal success is simply the fulfilment of what makes you happiest.

People never plan to be failures, they simply fail to plan to be successful. It takes courage to be successful, but once you are successful in one part of your life both courage and success overflow into all areas. We all know how to set goals; do lists of all the things we wish to achieve or improve in our lives. Knowing how to go about them is really quite unimportant unless we develop a strong sense of resolve and the courage to take that first step.

The old proverb, `Great things are done more through courage than through wisdom.’ is true. Many successful people admit they had no idea how to achieve their goals when they first set targets. The how and wherefore are learned along the way. All will tell you that courage and resolve are what leads you up the ladder of success.

Courage cannot be borrowed or bought. Every human being has courage within them. It is an intangible quality that we have been blessed with. It must be recognised within, nurtured and developed until it works for us automatically. Courage is developed by practising it in small ways, so that when major courageous acts are required of us we perform them without a minute’s hesitation.

<b>Whatever your goals are</b>, once you are on track, many other exciting unplanned opportunities will unfold for you. The world can be your oyster, if only you will take the first step.

<font color=”green”><b>You are capable of making 2009 your year.</b></font> Remember some people get the breaks; others make their own. Happy New Year!

online doctrate programs

Everyone knows that it is quite hard for a person to get the position that he wants, considering the advent of the global crisis today. However, it is definitely not a reason for anyone to be pessimistic about one’s career path. There are still some ways in order for a person to grab a job that he really likes. One of the methods is to strengthen his skills by obtaining post-graduate education.

A doctoral degree is certainly a good way for a person to further improve his career status. On the other hand, there is an impending difficulty for individuals who would like to pursue advanced studies because of the work that he needs to do in his job. In this case, the best thing that a person must to is to settle for online doctoral programs.

With the help of technology, it is not a wonder that people may now opt to get their education with the help of the information superhighway. Earning a doctoral degree is the highest academic merit that one may get, and this may signal the improvement of his career status. At a glance, this type of program will require a student to pursue independent researches and seminars to further improve his skills. If one still has a day job he needs to attain to, fulfilling the requirements of the course may be quite hard. Online doctoral programs may be an excellent option to obtain the academic merit the easier way.

By pursuing a doctoral program with the help of the internet, one will be required to complete the course through online forums and study groups. There may be times that the professors or facilitators may give you a schedule to attend a seminar or two, but this will be quite easier in comparison with attending campus-based courses. Professors also require students pursuing a doctorate degree to attend classes at the most convenient time possible. This is needed because intensive studies and researches are a must. However, this is quite easier than having to commute to and from work to university every day. One does not have to worry about class attendance by completing an online course.

Every student who wishes to complete the program must bear in mind that he should have a lot of motivation and discipline. Since this program requires a student to complete the requirements at his own pace, one must work to the fullest once that deadlines are set. This means that there will be sleepless nights if ever there are some delays with the coursework. Study routines must also be established so as it would not be a hassle for anyone. With these in mind, one will surely be able to finish the coursework in time and obtain a much-deserved academic merit for him to succeed in his career.

Online doctoral programs are a surefire way to improve one’s career status. It will further improve your knowledge and skills regarding the tasks that one needs to accomplish in his work.

Masters Degrees Online-why Get One

There are people who want to earn a good masters degree; however, they do not have the time to complete the course because of the amount of work that they have to do everyday. A masters degree will enable a person to seek a better opportunities because his skills regarding his work will be further developed. There is now a more convenient way for people to earn their masters degree, and that is by studying online.

Convenience and flexibility are the main thoughts in mind when obtaining masters degrees online. If one is worried about his full schedule, he does not have to fret any longer. More and more universities are offering opportunities for career-driven individuals to pursue their degrees online. Just imagine obtaining the much-valued education from some of the most prestigious colleges and universities by just staying in the comfort of one’s own home or even office. If one decides to take up a degree online, he can be sure that he will not bear the difficulties of commuting to and from school and being late for his classes. With an online masters degree, all one needs to do is to sit comfortably in front of his laptop or personal computer and do his researches at the most convenient time that he has.

Another great idea about obtaining an online masters degree is that it can compete with about any degree which is available in campus-based programs. Other individuals who opt to obtain a campus-based masters degree instead often fear that these online courses are quite short on the lessons that they need to study. However, this is definitely not true. Universities make sure that their online courses are at par with the ones that they offer in campus. Perhaps the only difference which can be noted from this circumstance is the fact that the fees are definitely lower for online programs.

If there are various advantages which stem from getting masters degrees online, a person must also be aware of the disadvantage that it might bring. A student pursuing such course must equip himself with tons and tons of self-motivation. As we all know, an online course gives a student an opportunity to complete the course work at the most convenient time that he has. However, what if he fails to do his work at the given time? A person must have discipline if he definitely wants to be successful in pursuing an online masters course. Just like any campus based program in which most students fail if they do not comply with the requirements, an online degree most certainly works in the same manner. Anyone who does not complete the requirements will fail.

All in all, getting an online degree is definitely worth it, especially for individuals who are quite caught up in their everyday work. With the help of technological advancement, anyone may now obtain their most-desired masters degree by just simply seeking the help of the information superhighway. Once that a person gets his masters degree, he can be sure that a career advancement is definitely on the way

online education articles

<b>Online Education Articles<b>

Education can now be obtained not only from within the four walls of the classroom. With our online education articles, you will gather information about the top how-to video sites that cover topics about just anything you want to know.

Even tutorials are now becoming more of online activities rather than face to face encounters. Find out how you can make money through online tutorials. For parents and students, find the best sites of getting tutorial services. You could even use interactive sites for your tutorial lessons.

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